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Amateur Press Association - The Literary Underground Wiki

Amateur Press Association

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[[File:Southern apa.jpg|frame|right|Southern Amateur Press Association, New Orleans, 1892]]
An '''amateur press association''' ('''APA''') is a group of people who produce individual pages or magazines that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group.
An '''amateur press association''' ('''APA''') is a group of people who produce individual pages or magazines that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group.
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==Organization==
==Organization==
APAs were a way for widely distributed groups of people to discuss a common interest together in a single forum before the advent of electronic bulletin boards or the Internet. Many were founded in the 1930s and later by fans of science fiction, comics, music, cinema and other topics as a way to develop writing, design and illustration skills. Many professional journalists, creative writers and artists practised in APAs and some still participate.  To some extent APAs have now been supplanted by internet chat groups and email mailing lists.
APAs were a way for widely distributed groups of people to discuss a common interest together in a single forum before the advent of electronic bulletin boards or the Internet. Many were founded in the 1930s and later by fans of science fiction, comics, music, cinema and other topics as a way to develop writing, design and illustration skills. Many professional journalists, creative writers and artists practised in APAs and some still participate.  To some extent APAs have now been supplanted by internet chat groups and email mailing lists.
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A Central Mailer (CM) (sometimes called a ''Distribution Manager'' or ''Official Editor'') is the coordinator of an APA. The heart of the role is the distribution of the association's publication to its members. The CM manages the subscription lists and the deadlines to which the association works. The CM is usually responsible for chasing members to ensure maximum participation although some APAs simply accumulate contributions between deadlines and mail out whatever is available at the mailing deadline.
A Central Mailer (CM) (sometimes called a ''Distribution Manager'' or ''Official Editor'') is the coordinator of an APA. The heart of the role is the distribution of the association's publication to its members. The CM manages the subscription lists and the deadlines to which the association works. The CM is usually responsible for chasing members to ensure maximum participation although some APAs simply accumulate contributions between deadlines and mail out whatever is available at the mailing deadline.
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Where the APA requires the submission of multiple copies by contributors, the CM merely collates the contributions. Some APAs involve the submission of camera ready copy; in such cases the CM arranges the reproduction of the material.  Most APAs require the members to submit a minimum amount of material in a specified format to a specified number of mailings. This minimum activity (abbreviated to "minac") is usually specified as something in the form of (for example): "at least two A4 pages to at least two out of every three mailings". Most APAs also require each member to maintain a credit balance in a central funds account to cover common reproduction costs and postage.
Where the APA requires the submission of multiple copies by contributors, the CM merely collates the contributions. Some APAs involve the submission of camera ready copy; in such cases the CM arranges the reproduction of the material.  Most APAs require the members to submit a minimum amount of material in a specified format to a specified number of mailings. This minimum activity (abbreviated to "minac") is usually specified as something in the form of (for example): "at least two A4 pages to at least two out of every three mailings". Most APAs also require each member to maintain a credit balance in a central funds account to cover common reproduction costs and postage.
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In most APAs the CM provides an administrative report listing the contents of each mailing and any business information associated with the association. This can include financial accounts, membership information and some news items. Although most APAs have predetermined deadlines at regular intervals it is normal practice for the CM to specify the next mailing deadlines explicitly in each mailing.
In most APAs the CM provides an administrative report listing the contents of each mailing and any business information associated with the association. This can include financial accounts, membership information and some news items. Although most APAs have predetermined deadlines at regular intervals it is normal practice for the CM to specify the next mailing deadlines explicitly in each mailing.
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Although some APAs are autocratic, most run on a democratic basis and the CM usually chairs any discussions and arranges any management meetings.
Although some APAs are autocratic, most run on a democratic basis and the CM usually chairs any discussions and arranges any management meetings.
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APAs that require members to submit multiple copies of their contribution (commonly called "apazines") usually set a limit to the number of members and run a waiting list if this becomes necessary. In many cases people on the waiting list are permitted to contribute to mailings and may receive excess apazines provided by the members.
 
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APAs that require members to submit multiple copies of their contribution (commonly called "apazines") usually set a limit to the number of members and run a waiting list if this becomes necessary. In many cases people on the waiting list are permitted to contribute to mailings and may receive excess apazines provided by the members.
==History==
==History==
The first APAs were formed by groups of amateur printers. The earliest to become more than a small informal group of friends was the '''National Amateur Press Association''' (NAPA) founded February 19, 1876 by Evan Reed Riale and nine other members in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.<ref>Smith, Burton J.. "[http://www.amateurpress.org/ajhist/begin.htm National Amateur Press Association The First 100 Years: In the Beginning...]". National Amateur Press Association. Retrieved 27 August 2010.</ref> It is still running in 2011.
The first APAs were formed by groups of amateur printers. The earliest to become more than a small informal group of friends was the '''National Amateur Press Association''' (NAPA) founded February 19, 1876 by Evan Reed Riale and nine other members in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.<ref>Smith, Burton J.. "[http://www.amateurpress.org/ajhist/begin.htm National Amateur Press Association The First 100 Years: In the Beginning...]". National Amateur Press Association. Retrieved 27 August 2010.</ref> It is still running in 2011.
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The first British APA was the '''British Amateur Press Association''' founded in 1890. This is a different organisation from that launched by comics fans in 1978 (see below).
The first British APA was the '''British Amateur Press Association''' founded in 1890. This is a different organisation from that launched by comics fans in 1978 (see below).
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The second United States APA was the '''United Amateur Press Association''' (UAPA) founded in 1895 by a group of teenagers including William H. Greenfield (aged 14) and Charles W. Heins (aged 17).<ref>[http://www.thefossils.org/horvat/aj/organizations/uapa.htm United Amateur Press Association, 1890 to date] The Fossils, 27 August 2010</ref> This became a confederation of small amateur publishers which split into two organisations known interchangeably as UAP and UAAPA. The American Amateur Press Association (AAPA) was formed in 1936 by a secession from what was then called UAPAA.
The second United States APA was the '''United Amateur Press Association''' (UAPA) founded in 1895 by a group of teenagers including William H. Greenfield (aged 14) and Charles W. Heins (aged 17).<ref>[http://www.thefossils.org/horvat/aj/organizations/uapa.htm United Amateur Press Association, 1890 to date] The Fossils, 27 August 2010</ref> This became a confederation of small amateur publishers which split into two organisations known interchangeably as UAP and UAAPA. The American Amateur Press Association (AAPA) was formed in 1936 by a secession from what was then called UAPAA.
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The first science fiction APA was the '''Fantasy Amateur Press Association''' (FAPA) formed by a group of science fiction fans in 1937.  It continues to be active in 2012.  SAPS, the Spectator Amateur Press Society, started in 1947 and is still active in 2012.  VAPA, The Vanguard Amateur Press Association, formed in 1945 and lasted until 1950.
The first science fiction APA was the '''Fantasy Amateur Press Association''' (FAPA) formed by a group of science fiction fans in 1937.  It continues to be active in 2012.  SAPS, the Spectator Amateur Press Society, started in 1947 and is still active in 2012.  VAPA, The Vanguard Amateur Press Association, formed in 1945 and lasted until 1950.
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The first comics APA was started by Jerry Bails in 1964 in the United States. Called '''CAPA-alpha''' (sometimes abbreviated to K-a) it grew to its present limit of 40 members. It has become the archetype for most subsequent comics APAs. Its members have included Dwight Decker,  Mark Evanier, Carl Gafford, Fred Patten, Richard and Wendy Pini, Roy Thomas, Dan Alderson, Rick Norwood, Don Markstein, and Don Thompson (Comics Buyer's Guide) and Maggie Thompson. Michael Barrier's famed animation fanzine ''Funnyworld'' started as a CAPA-alpha contribution.
The first comics APA was started by Jerry Bails in 1964 in the United States. Called '''CAPA-alpha''' (sometimes abbreviated to K-a) it grew to its present limit of 40 members. It has become the archetype for most subsequent comics APAs. Its members have included Dwight Decker,  Mark Evanier, Carl Gafford, Fred Patten, Richard and Wendy Pini, Roy Thomas, Dan Alderson, Rick Norwood, Don Markstein, and Don Thompson (Comics Buyer's Guide) and Maggie Thompson. Michael Barrier's famed animation fanzine ''Funnyworld'' started as a CAPA-alpha contribution.
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Decker and Gafford were also founding members of the minicomics co-op the United Fanzine Organization. The difference in a co-op and an APA is that an APA is helmed by a central mailer, to whom the members send copies of their publications. The central mailer then compiles all the books into one large volume, which is then mailed out to the membership in "mailings" (called "bundles" by a few APAs). In a co-op, however, there is no central mailer; the members distribute their own works, and are linked by a group newsletter, a group symbol that appears on each member work, and a group checklist in every "member zine."
Decker and Gafford were also founding members of the minicomics co-op the United Fanzine Organization. The difference in a co-op and an APA is that an APA is helmed by a central mailer, to whom the members send copies of their publications. The central mailer then compiles all the books into one large volume, which is then mailed out to the membership in "mailings" (called "bundles" by a few APAs). In a co-op, however, there is no central mailer; the members distribute their own works, and are linked by a group newsletter, a group symbol that appears on each member work, and a group checklist in every "member zine."
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The first European comics APA was called British Amateur Press Association (comics fandom--PAPA) and launched by a group of comics fans in January 1978. Soon renamed BAPA (for "British APA"), it celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary in 2003, but folded the following summer.
The first European comics APA was called British Amateur Press Association (comics fandom--PAPA) and launched by a group of comics fans in January 1978. Soon renamed BAPA (for "British APA"), it celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary in 2003, but folded the following summer.
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The APA model was picked up by artists in the 1980s.  Groups of artists contributed elements of combined duplicated artworks that omitted the conversational elements of the fandom-based APAs (these pieces are sometimes called "assembly art"). During this same period, a group of British science fiction and comics fans also set up a short-lived "tape APA", contributing music and spoken word to a central anthology.
The APA model was picked up by artists in the 1980s.  Groups of artists contributed elements of combined duplicated artworks that omitted the conversational elements of the fandom-based APAs (these pieces are sometimes called "assembly art"). During this same period, a group of British science fiction and comics fans also set up a short-lived "tape APA", contributing music and spoken word to a central anthology.
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The latest innovation is a digital distribution, e-APA. Copies of past "mailings" are archived at the online resource [[eFanzines]].
 
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The latest innovation is a digital distribution, e-APA. Copies of past "mailings" are archived at the online resource [[eFanzines]].
==List of APAs==
==List of APAs==
This list is not exhaustive. Unless otherwise stated, these APAs are based in the United States.
This list is not exhaustive. Unless otherwise stated, these APAs are based in the United States.
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* .zap!! - an APA for participants in the alt.zines Usenet newsgroup. Published several issues in the mid-'90s and was revived by the original editor in 2008
* .zap!! - an APA for participants in the alt.zines Usenet newsgroup. Published several issues in the mid-'90s and was revived by the original editor in 2008
* Z-FLapa - short-lived local APA based in Zephyrhills, Florida; merged with NYAPA
* Z-FLapa - short-lived local APA based in Zephyrhills, Florida; merged with NYAPA
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==See also==
==See also==
*[[Committee of correspondence]]
*[[Committee of correspondence]]
*[[Hamilton Wood Type and Printing Museum]]
*[[Hamilton Wood Type and Printing Museum]]
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==References==
==References==
<references/>
<references/>
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* Wertham, Fredric, ''The World of Fanzines'', (Carbondale & Evanston: Southern Illinois University Press, 1973)
* Wertham, Fredric, ''The World of Fanzines'', (Carbondale & Evanston: Southern Illinois University Press, 1973)
{{Refend}}
{{Refend}}
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==External links==
==External links==
*[http://www.smithuel.net/sfchb/hbp4apa.html 1997 Southern Fandom Confederation Handbook]
*[http://www.smithuel.net/sfchb/hbp4apa.html 1997 Southern Fandom Confederation Handbook]
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[[Category:Magazines]]
[[Category:Magazines]]
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[[Category:Organizations]]

Latest revision as of 14:27, 22 April 2012

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